Description Usage Supplement Facts Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest trees known and has been used to support health for nearly 2,800 years. Ginkgo has been found to: Support healthy circulation Help maintain the normal function and tone of blood vessels Support healthy oxygen and glucose metabolism in the brain Stabilize capillaries and make them less fragile Support normal coagulation of blood Support healthy aging in the brain Ginkgo leaf extracts contain several active constituents with neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. These include flavonoids (e.g., rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and proanthocyanidins), terpenoids (i.e., ginkgolides), and organic acids. Flavonoids are known to strengthen capillaries, promote healthy blood flow to the brain, and help maintain cognitive health. Flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol from Ginkgo biloba are potent antioxidants and scavengers of many species of free radical, protecting against oxidative cell damage. Ginkgo protects the energy-producing mitochondria in the cells, thus enhancing oxygen utilization and cellular respiration. Ginkgo may also inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha while upregulating the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine called IL-10. In a study to determine whether ginkgo extract could prevent age-associated cellular changes, the brain and liver mitochondria of old mice fed ginkgo extract in their drinking water was compared to those of young and old control mice. Mitochondria from the mice given ginkgo exhibited significantly less genetic damage, peroxide generation, and oxidation of the crucial antioxidant glutathione than non-supplemented mice. In addition, mitochondria from old mice given the ginkgo extract resembled those of young mice much more closely, being similar in size and morphology. The study concluded that standardized ginkgo extract prevents age-related decline in mitochondrial structure and function by protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage. The premium-quality botanical extract in Ginkgo Biloba Certified Extract™ has been concentrated and dual-standardized to ensure the highest quality, consistency, and biological activity. The phytonutrient profile of Ginkgo Biloba Certified Extract™ is comparable to the GBE 24/6 extract used in clinical studies worldwide and monographed in German Commission E. The health regulatory agency that regulates ginkgo purity in Germany mandates that ginkgo not contain more than 5 ppm of ginkgolic acid. Ginkgo Biloba Certified Extract™ contains less than 1 ppm of ginkgolic acid. Ginkgolic acid is a substance related to anacardic acid (poison ivy) and may cause an allergic reaction in some people. Ginkgo Biloba Certified Extract™ has one of the lowest ginkgolic acid levels commercially available. Ginkgo Biloba Certified Extract™ has high levels of ginkgolide B (>1%), which is the most studied terpene lactone and thought to be a major regulator of platelet activating factor (PAF). PAF is a powerful physiologic-response mediator for many processes. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Suggested Use Adults: Take one capsule daily with or without food, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner. If you are taking MAO inhibitors, anti-coagulant or anti-platelet medications, or have a bleeding disorder, consult your healthcare provider before taking ginkgo. Ginkgolic acid is an allergen for some people and is present in much higher levels in lower-quality products. If you are pregnant, nursing, or undergoing treatment for a medical condition, please consult your healthcare professional before using this product. Store in a cool, dry place and tightly capped. Keep out of the reach of children. Tamper resistant package, do not use if outer seal is missing. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving size: 1 capsule Servings per container: 365 Ingredients Amount %DV Ginkgo biloba (leaf) extract [std. for 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides (28.8mg) 6% total terpene lactones (7.2mg), and120 mg† * % Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.† Daily Value not established. Other Ingredients: rice flour, gelatin, magnesium stearate. Contains rice. Contains no: milk, egg, fish, peanuts, crustacean shellfish (lobster, crab, shrimp), soybeans, tree nuts, wheat, yeast, gluten, corn, sugar, and no artificial sweeteners, flavors, colors, or preservatives.